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  • +62 8128 2128 999
  • aw@wijayaco.id

Postnuptial agreement is legally recognized in Indonesia. It is a legal instrument from the decision of the Constitutional Court. It's quite a breakthrough but it has some prerequisite requirements in order to be valid. Some of them must come from you as the parties of the contract. Some come from the contract itself, including the formalities from the government institution supervising the proceeding.

You Must be a Husband and Wife

Postnuptial agreement in Indonesia is an agreement signed by a husband and a wife after their legal marriage. The marriage must be properly registered at a registry, such as civil registry, if they were married in Non Moslem, or Office of Religious Affairs (so called "KUA"), if they were a Moslem couple. This is related to one of the legal requirements imposed by the laws in getting a recognised post-marital agreement.

You must be a legally-wedded husband and wife in order to sign a postnuptial agreement. The marriage must have been performed, both the civil marriage and the religious ceremony. In Indonesia, you can't have a civil marriage  without performing religious ceremony. So, both of them must be completed before the postnup is being signed. Therefore, you must be able to present the marriage certificate/book for processing the postnup.

Dual Language

The draft of your postnup is available in Indonesian language. An English translation may be provided for mutual understanding. But the version with the legal precedent is the Indonesian. A good postnup certifies this situation in order to give you an informed consent before you said OK to this.

Your legal expert must offer a dual language questionnaire to gather all the required input from you and your wife of what should be included into your postnuptial agreement. Many legal aspects in your marriage that you can't afford to left behind. Therefore, a questionnaire is crucial. At Wijaya & Co, we offer our clients with a questionnaire in order to give you any idea what's your postnup is about.

From Joint to Separation

The regime of property ownership in your postnup will be changed drastically, from joint ownership to total separation. Each spouse will have independent control of his/her own property. This will take effect since the date you signed the postnup. Therefore, each property belongs to each spouse, and they require no assistance from the other. This is a favourable situation when the two of you are a mixed-marriage couple.

This regime will allow the Indonesian spouse to maintain his/her ownership in any immovable property located in Indonesia. Without this situation, she/he will be precluded to own a property under Hak Milik (Freehold Title), let alone to dispose it. If you need a bank's loan to finance the purchase of your assets, chances are they may not be able to offer you one. Many of our clients experience this constraint. A successful application was made after a good and legally recognized postnuptial agreement is incorporated with us.

What If You Can't Come to Indonesia

The Covid-19 pandemic forbids you to travel to Indonesia. You can't come down here to sign the postnup, both you and your spouse. In that case, you need to make sure if the country you live in has diplomatic relationship with Indonesia. If they do have an embassy or a consulate there, you can take the postnup to the embassy/consulate, and get your signatures attested by the consular officers.

We'll take it from there!

Court-Approved

I always advise my clients to get a court approval to their postnup contract. You see, the postnup is changing the situation, from joint to separation of property. This is changing of legal situation. The only thing that can do this is a court of law. The process may take a little bit longer. It may costs you a little bit. But, this is going to be the strongest legal instrument you ever make in terms of your property protection in Indonesia. 

You need to consider this if you own quite significant assets or planning to buy an assets based on the postnuptial agreement. Make sure you have strong legal basis in order to move forward ahead. If you're in this situation, I strongly suggest you get one of this type of postnuptial agreement. Please call me or email me if you need any further information or requires any assistance with this.

My name is Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading!

Published in Library

Postnuptial agreement  is another marital contract recognized under the laws and regulation in the Republic of Indonesia. It is a contract entered into by husband and wife within the course of their marriage. It is not valid retroactively and only applicable to property acquired after the contract legally executed.

As to other contracts under the legal system in Indonesia, both Article 1320 and 1338 of Civil Code are applicable to the postnuptial agreement. Those two articles are the basic rules for contracts in Indonesia, both for marital agreement as well as non-marital agreement.

Article 1320 of the Civil Code stipulates that in order to be valid, an agreement must satisfy the following four conditions: 1. there must be consent of the individuals who are bound thereby; 2. there must be capacity to enter into an obligation; 3. there must be a specific subject matter; 4. there must be a permitted cause. 

As for Article 1338 of Civil Code imposed that all valid agreements apply to the individuals who have concluded them as law. Such agreements are irrevocable other than by mutual consent, or pursuant to reasons stipulated by the law. They must be executed in good faith.

In view of the above two basic laws in recognizing the validity of the postnuptial agreement in Indonesia, married couples must abide those stipulation before they enter into the contract. Some required terms and conditions imposed by the Article 1320 of Civil Code are applicable thereto:

  1. No consent is valid if it is granted based on mistake or obtained by duress or fraud. So, you need to have an informed consent from your spouse in order to enter into a postnup. A mistake does not render an agreement invalid unless such mistake pertains to the substance of the subject matter of the agreement. Duress against an individual who has entered into an agreement, provides grounds for nullification of the agreement, even if it was committed by a third party who does not benefit from the agreement. Fraud is form grounds for nullification of an agreement, if the fraud by one party is of such nature that it is apparent that the other party would never have concluded the agreement were it not for such deceit. Fraud is not be presumed, but must be proven.
  2. Each individual is authorized to conclude agreements, unless he has been declared incompetent by law. The following individuals are incompetent to conclude agreements: 1. minors; 2. individuals under guardianship. Those individuals are incompetent to enter into agreements may claim for the nullification of the obligations, except for where the law excludes such power.
  3. An agreement must at least have as a subject a matter a property whose nature is determined. The quantity of the matter needs not be ascertained, insofar such quantity can be determined or calculated at a later date. Future properties may be the subject of an agreement. An individual may not however, relinquish an inheritance which has not occurred or conclude an agreement regarding such inheritance, notwithstanding that he has obtained the consent of the testator.
  4. Any agreement without a cause, or concluded pursuant to a fraudulent or prohibited cause, is not be enforceable. In the event that no cause is specified but that there is an existing permissible cause, or if there is a permissible cause other than the one specified, the agreement shall be valid. A cause is prohibited if it is prohibited by law, or if it violates morality or public order. 

As for the Article 1338 of Civil Code, the terms and conditions applicable to the postnuptial agreement are as follows:

All valid agreements apply to the individuals who have concluded them as law. In the postnuptial agreement, husband and wife sign the contract. So, the terms and conditions of the postnup applicable to both of them;

Such agreements are irrevocable other than by mutual consent, or pursuant to reasons stipulated by the law. You can't withdraw from the contract just because you changed your mind, and the contract no longer interests you. Your spouse consent in revoking the contract is required;

They must be executed in good faith. Agreements is bind the parties not only to that which is expressly stipulated, but also to that which, pursuant to the nature of the agreements, shall be imposed by propriety, customs, or the law. 

An agreement applies only to the parties thereto. An agreement cannot be detrimental to third parties; third parties cannot benefit from them. When you signed the contract, your parents are not included as one of the parties. You're an adult and you should take responsible for the thing you are doing.

My name is Asep Wijaya. Thank you for visiting my blogs and reading my posts!

Published in Library

Getting marry is going to be the best decision you'll ever made. It is a simple decision with the a future lying ahead of you. They said the marriage is the foundation to everything in your life, among other, property. Both husband and wife are to have joint property ownership after the marriage, if they did not sign anything like a prenuptial agreement. Sometime, you don't get one just because you thought you did not need one. But now, the Constitutional Court revised the Article 29 (1) of the Marriage Law that the marital agreement may be entered as well during the course of marriage. The verdict number 69/PUU-XII/2015 officially created a postnuptial agreement on October 27, 2016 as one of the legal instrument in management of your assets in the marriage. Now, you can have one when you feel you need one.

The ideas behind this decision to officially allow the postnuptial agreement for married couples were to create separation of property and assets between husband and wife. Their separate assets are protected. No drama in fighting for property division. The same idea also applicable to debts. Husband and wife shall responsible for debts they created. The postnup therefore shall create separation of liability during the course of marriage. Furthermore, no consent is required from each of the party in the marriage in the event they want to sell their own separate assets. As for loan application with the bank, neither party is required to obtain consent from their spouse in putting their separate assets as a mortgage. In view of the above, the court wants both parties are totally independent in managing their assets. This is a fine legal reasoning. The Constitutional Court, they keep-up with the contemporary developments within the society in Indonesia. Awesome!

The validity of the postnup shall be initiated as soon as you’ve signed it. It is applicable since you entered it, and it is advisable not retroactively backward. It is applicable on actual date. This is to avoid any conflict of interests with any third party, because since the marriage date the couple might have been created jointly owned marital assets. It is very difficult to differentiate which property belongs to separate or joint property. You may potentially jeopardize the third party’s interests such as banks, and other investors in your marital assets. If you should retroactively draw the postnup back to the marriage date, at least you need to have the properties included into the exhibit and make sure they are mortgage-free. Apart from the ones listed in the exhibit, they belong to both of them. The couple is to have equal shares. This will also include the creditor(s) having a portion in the unlisted properties for the part that a mortgage has been put under. You may want to contact me here to discuss any further about this matter.

The postnup created under the verdict from the Constitutional Court has potential challengeable issues. The verdict put a notary as the party that legalize the postnup. According to the civil law procedures doctrines, this is not a proper ruling. They put the role of a notary to substitute the authority of a judge. You see, having a prenup and not having a prenup is a big deal, because it creates a property separation during the course of marriage. This situation is full of potential issues because when you're having a property, whether you like it or not, it involves other third party(ies) too, not just you and your spouse. The other third party such as bank as the lender if the property under mortgage, the government through the BPN (Badan Pertanahan National/National Land Registry), and other party that may have interest in your assets acquired during the marriage. At Wijaya & Co., we always pay attention to our clients' details and therefore issues are identified before they become potential hiccoughs. 

By having a notary legalizes a postnup, they are driven to declare some new legal situation. Last time I checked, this is the domain of a court through their legal instruments i.e. court decree. They called it a Declaratory Verdict. It creates a new legal facts, a new situation. For instance, declaring from joint property ownership to separation of ownership. As far as I concern, the court have a very established sets of law in civil procedures. Before finally reaching the verdict, the court must conduct a cross examination. This is a very important phase in civil legal system. If you were not happy with the verdict, you may file an appeal to the higher court within 14 (fourteen) days since the date the verdict reached. If there was nothing within that set of time-frame, the court finds that you are happy with the verdict, and everybody can get on with their lives. Your Indonesian attorney may proceed to draft a postnup for you.

You can't have those situations if a notary is to legalise the postnup. The convert from joint property to separate property, is not legally assessed with substantial rule of evidence, like the one they're doing it at a court proceeding. If one of the spouses was not happy, or seek any potential leeway that may benefit them in a divorce case, they might want to revoke the prenup. I would say they may be able to do that. Therefore, the postnup as its final outcome, is challengeable, and may be voidable. I would suggest you should consider it with full discretion. If your situation is full with substantial marital property, you should decide if any further reasonable action may be taken to secure your interests. 

My name is Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading my posts!

 

Disclaimer:
The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found anywhere in this article nor in this website. 
Published in Library

The laws in Indonesia legally recognized marital agreement as a contract entered by a husband and wife, either before or during the course of marriage. Having a marital contract, either a prenup or postnup in Indonesia, there is more to it than meets the eyes. You can see how it redefines your marriage, regardless your nationalities. 

Are You In It for Love?

A prenuptial agreement(so called “Prenup”) in Indonesia definitely can protect your assets. When you're considering to marry someone, you need to know if she/he's marrying you for love or for money. One could never tell, but the marital agreement could always do. Take my word for it. If she/she says yes, even after the prenup has been executed, then he/she's the one. No matter what. 

By entering into a marital agreement prior to your marriage, you can protect your assets acquired prior to your marriage to him/her. The assets are legally free from the claim she/he can brought against you as if no marriage has been consummated. You're not legally liable for the debts prior the marriage. So, yes, with the marital agreement in Indonesia, you are in it for love. Not for the money.

Protection against Bigamy

This is sometime, just sometime, happens in countries like Indonesia: your husband is committing bigamy. Ouch! That's not good. Please don't get mad. Get everything! Yes, you read me right. Get everything, literally!

You should insist to enter into a postnuptial agreement (so called “Postnup”) between you and your husband in order to protect your financial interest, your children's future, and your assets. Even though, each marriage to each wife and its assets is totally separated, but you never knew. Get yourself a cover. You can't risk yourself and the children exposed to any potential risks. In this case, you should get a postnuptial agreement. A Postnup in Indonesia is legal and recognized.  is a type of marital agreement entered into a husband and wife during the course of marriage. With the breakthrough verdict from the Constitutional Court in 2016, the postnup is legally recognized and totally can be upheld in the court of law. 

Using a postnuptial agreement to protect yourself from bigamy is exist long before the Court reach the verdict. The terms and conditions for this type of marital agreement is even exist in the Civil Code. Indonesian socialites have been using this to protect their marital assets, and the laws allow the wife to submit a motion for postnuptial agreement. 

Business as Usual

Practically, in Indonesia, your spouse is your business partner. Not to mention if she/he's actively contributing to the business enterprise on daily basis. Whether he/she is serving as a member of the board or not. Your spouse entitles to half of your share. Lovely, isn't it?

Article 157 Civil Code imposed that the profit you made out of your marital assets, retrieved from the community assets, income derived from joint assets, shall be considered as marital property or community property. Whatever you call it, your spouse entitle to it. Your profit, your income, exchanges of the existing property, among others, are part of the joint assets with your spouse. 

When the marriage ends with a divorce, your spouse gets half of the assets, both now in existence and its profits. So, consider signing an Indonesian postnuptial agreement in order to prevent that from happening, and list your business enterprise as one of your separate assets. 

Preserving Your Inheritance

Say, you're expecting inheritance from your parents. Legally, inheritance and gift from a third party are separate property. Article 35 (2) of 1974 Marriage Law stipulates that if you otherwise determined, the inheritance may become joint property. It means, it may not be free from your spouse's claims. Putting the inheritance into a prenup or postnup contract in Indonesia can preserve the inheritance from your parents. It can't be touched legally. You may be clear describing the assets such as location, dimension, and other related description in the marital agreement.

Back-to-Back: Foreign & Indonesian Prenup

Both of you are foreigners. Neither of you is an Indonesian citizen. But you have been residing in Indonesia for quite sometimes. You plan to get marry in one of our beautiful islands such as Bali, or Lombok. It means, you're registering your marriage under the laws of Indonesia. You're submitting yourselves to the legal system in Indonesia. There's a legal term called: "Minimum Contact." It’s a universal legal terms. You and your husband have a minimum contact with the Indonesian laws because you live in Indonesia. The legal effect is minimum but it’s still a loophole. I am not saying you are totally exposed without any Indonesian prenup or postnup, but if you wish to have a safe-precaution, you should get one. Remember, the Indonesian laws on marriage is applicable also to foreigners live in Indonesia. This is the part of the international civil law that may expose you to the risks of having a regime of marital property. Doctrines on the international civil laws are very complicated. We don’t know which one the court will apply to your case. We never know which court will have jurisdiction to your situation. But the last thing you want is to left yourself, and your marriage open to the potential exposures of marital property regime in Indonesia. People spends tens of thousand of dollars fighting in divorce litigations, while they can avoid it with a piece of paper called a prenup. 

But hey! You're signing a foreign prenup. That's cool! You know what? Your foreign prenup is not recognized here. So, from the Indonesia's legal perspective you’re married but with no prenup. Therefore, you have joint property ownership regime. On the other hand, if you have the Indonesian prenup, and/or the Indonesian marriage, and/or you live here on the Indonesian soil, those are legal bonafide to you and your marriage. There’s no question in terms of the legality of your foreign prenup. It will even make things stronger. The Indonesian prenup shall serve as "the bridge" to your foreign prenup. So, everything is connected now. There's no missing link anymore.

In the event of divorce, with the Indonesian prenup, your marriage will still have separation of property regime. This can be used as “mirror” just in case things get ugly, and any court in other country may refer to the Indonesian side.

Preserving the Indonesian

I like the term "preserving" better than "protecting" because your Indonesian spouse is entitled to the freehold property. She/he can own property under hak milik. The best thing about it is that you can keep it for good. You can even inherit to your children. But once you're married to a foreigner, the Indonesian shall be precluded in owning the property in Indonesia. She/he is the same legal position with his/her foreign spouse. The Indonesian prenup comes to preserve the rights of an Indonesian citizen, even though she/he's married to a foreigner. The right or entitlement in owning the property has already been there since the Indonesian spouse was born. So, nothing to be protected. It just a matter of preserving what's already been there.

Do you know any other way how an Indonesian prenuptial or postnuptiall agreement may redefines your marriage? Do you have something to discuss with? Please do not hesitate to contact me:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

I am Asep Wijaya. Thank you for visiting my blogs and reading my posts.

Disclaimer:

The above is provided for informational purposes only and is NOT to be relied upon as legal advice. This information is not a substitute for the advice of an attorney and should not be construed as a solicitation. No attorney-client relationship is established by use of information found anywhere in this article nor in this website. 

Published in Library
Friday, 28 April 2017 13:58

Marriage in Indonesia

 
Marriage registration in Indonesia can be done after fulfiling ten days waiting period. You must have the same religion in order to get marry in Indonesia. We don't recognize mixed religion registration. Any marriage performed according to the couple's religion affiliation is legal in Indonesia. For non-Moslem couples, after they performed religious ceremonies, they must register their marriage with the civil registry in order to make it legally recognized. Under the current law, it must be done at the same jurisdiction with their domicile. Otherwise, the civil registry will not be able to accept their marriage registration. As for Moslem couples, their marriage must be registered with the Kantor Urusan Agama (KUA). They will receive a passport-sized marriage book colored in brown and green. The English term for this government institution is Office of Religious Affairs. Marriages registered with the KUA is legal and recognized, even without registration with the civil registry.  
 
The marriage ceremony can be done at the office of the marriage registry, or it can also be done at your place i.e. hotel, apartment. They can also come to your house. The marriage books or marriage certificate will be presented to you after the  ceremony. If you sign a marital agreement before the marriage, the details of your prenup shall also be printed on the marriage book/certificate. So is with the prenup, it will have the registration details from the Marriage Registry. This is to meet publicity requirements as set-out by the Marriage Law. The marital agreement must also be registered with a court. Both of registrations will be shown in your marital contract. You need to do this in order to create a legally binding marital contract, and a bonafide marriage. I strongly suggest you do so.
 
During the proceeding of the marriage, you may also conduct a child legalization. This involves the child birth certification to include his/her relationship with the biological father. Nowadays, they need you to supply a DNA test to support your parental claim. Two witnesses are required in order to support the birth registration of the child. At this point, you need to perform a court litigation. This is quite tricky situation. This may also involves citizenship issues if the alledged father is an Indonesian. The child birth certificate will show his/her nationality(ies). This is a civil document to prove the legal identity of the child. This is the last thing you want to mess up with.
 
As you can see, the marriage is the foundation of your life. It affects so many aspects in your life, and your loved ones. When you're doing things rights, and you're doing it the right way, you'll be fine. Everyone will be alright. Wijaya & Co can assist you in registering your marriage by going through the administrative procedures and government bureaucracy, so you don't have to. Our lawyers know how to get you tie the knot with your partner legally.
 
My name is Asep Wijaya. Thank you for reading my posts, and visiting my blogs.
 
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